•••• THE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL THREATS ••••
is quite reasonable to assume that in an all-out nuclear conflict
chemical and biological weapons will be employed. While chemical weapons
might have a predominant tactical use, i.e., on a battle field, biological
weapons, which are subject to the possibility of some sort of negative
feedback, i.e., changing wind directions carrying them back towards
the offender since they depend on the dispersal in the atmospheric
winds, might be prevalently employed to target populations in distant
areas at intercontinental range.
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION.
behavior of chemical agents is dependent on weather variables such as
wind, temperature, air stability, humidity, and precipitation. The influence
of each variable depends upon the synoptic situation and is locally
influenced by topography, vegetation and soil. Chemical agents may be
dispersed in different forms: vapors, aerosols, or liquids. It is hence
important how these agents are affected by environmental constraints
hence following is an overview of the basic characteristics of chemical
agents and the ambience effects.
Vapors - When a chemical agent is disseminated as a vapor from a bursting munition, initially the cloud expands, grows cooler and heavier, and tends to retain it form. The height of the thermally stabilized cloud is height to which the cloud rises, due to it buoyancy. If the vapor density of the released agent is less than the air's vapor density, the cloud rises quite rapidly, mixes with the surrounding air, and dilutes rapidly. If the agent forms a dense gas, its vapor density being greater than the air's vapor density, the cloud flattens, sinks, and flows aver the earth's surface. Generally, cloud growth during the first 30 seconds is more dependent upon the munition or delivery system than upon surrounding meteorological conditions.
 All the material used in this work was obtained from unclassified sources; some of the material is adapted from standard sources. Where other material has been adapted the figures in this work should not be taken as approved by the original source.
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